Friday, 27 December 2013

18 frames on how built Ostankino tower

April 30, 1967 was put into operation the Moscow Ostankino TV Tower. Now it seems that it was once the tallest building in the world, survived a fire in 2000, has always been. But once it was just starting to build! Introduce you to a very interesting, in our view, a report on the construction of a television tower - with the technical details, based on historical photographs.

Tower, weighing more than 32 tons, built on a monolithic reinforced concrete foundation ring width of 9.5 meters, 3 meters in height and diameter (the circumscribed circle) of 74 meters. In decagonal concrete foundation tape with the help of hard reinforcement ring (it consists of 104 beams, each beam 24 wire with a diameter of 5 mm each) created prestressing - each bundle is tensioned by hydraulic jacks with a force of about 60 tons.

Foundation is laid in the ground to a depth of 4.65 meters. It is assumed that it will settle 3-3.5 centimeters. Rollover resistance tower has six-reserve.

 Concrete support of the entire structure is a thin-walled conical shell, resting ten concrete "legs" on the banquettes foundation. The diameter of the lower base of the shell - 60.6 meters, and at a height of 63 meters it is 18 meters. Upper reinforced concrete stem from the height of 321 meters, is a cylinder with an outer diameter of 8.1 meters.The thickness of the walls at the base of the tower - 500 millimeters.

In the center of the conical base on an independent foundation (round concrete slab 12 meters in diameter and 1 meter thick) erected concrete glass height of 63 meters and a diameter of 7.5 meters. In this cup pass high-speed elevators, power cables, communication cables, mine with water and sewer risers and emergency steel staircase. Rely on the glass ends of the beams fifteen suspended ceiling, in between the glass and the conical base passes staircase. Construction of separate foundations for two independent structures - towers and glass - allows you to send different pressure on the ground in their erratic rainfall.

Under the action of wind load upper part of the tower can vary, and its deviation peaks in strong winds can reach 10 meters. With winds that come in Moscow quite often, on average, once a week, visitors to the restaurant and viewing platforms will feel vibrations of the tower about the same as the rocking ship with an amplitude of 8 centimeters when the oscillation period of 10 seconds.

Towers have another "enemy." This ... sun. Due to one-sided heating barrel moves (the curvature) at the apex of 2.25 meters, at lookouts - 0.72 meters. To reduce the strain on the wind load and one-sided heating from a distance of 50 mm from the inner surface of the barrel spanned 150 steel cables. Total stress their tension power 10,400 tons is the weight of an ocean liner. Cables will assume the tensile forces and will protect the concrete from cracking, and therefore fitting - from corrosion.

 On the concrete part of the tower has multiple metallic antennas total height of 148 meters. Antennas made in the form of steel pipes. Inside the tube are rigid diaphragm. For antenna service to a height of 470 meters, a special elevator. To inspect and dismantle vibrators, as well as periodically painted steelwork antennas installed 6 platforms with handrails and suspended cradle.

During the construction of the tower is widely used to achieve the latest construction equipment. Unique tower crane BC-1000 carrying capacity of 16 tons (with an outreach of 45 meters) were collected and mounted metal. Trunk tower being constructed with a single jack-up unit in the world, weighing about 300 tons. This aggregate concrete delivered elevators.

On a separate site crawler crane SKG-100 (capacity of 100 tons) were collected sections of metal antennas. It was a control assembly. Simultaneously mount equipment and antennas installed vibrators. Then again reviewed the section of the antenna, and their individual parts - side-bar - served on tap overload platform to a height of 63 meters. Then a special crane mounted on the trunk of the tower, the first side-bar climbed to the top of the tower and mounted so that they went inside her trunk at 10 meters. And after this installation were creeping through the tap.

Draft architectural and construction of a television tower designed TSNIEP entertainment buildings and sports facilities. Authors: Design Engineer Nikitin, architects D. Burdin, L. Batalov, V. Milashevsky, design engineer B. Zlobin engineer plumber T. Melik-Arakelyan. The individual parts of a project developed "Mosproekt 1" and 19 other design organizations. General project organization - SSDI USSR Ministry of Communications. Technological part of the project is provided by the team of authors under the direction of I. Ostrovsky.

 After the control assembly and adjustment of antennas on separate stand fittings (side-bar) up to 25 tons crawler crane transferred the zone of the annular valve. He raises tsargami to reloading platform to a height of 63 m bridge crane, located at an altitude of 385 and, on the other side-bar lifts overload site located at 370 meters altitude. Then self-elevating crane mounted on moving architrave sets new incoming side-bar on each other.

Latest, top link for crane lifts its middle. To save the vertical position of the lower end of its executives artificially heavier.

 With a height of 385 m circular path visible ground cranes. In the foreground image is visible tarpaulin "skirt" with rope frame placed behind it suspended platform from which work is underway to secure the outer casing and the outer surface of the concrete inspection.

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